Thursday, August 27, 2020

The use of DNA to exonerate an individual under the post-conviction Essay

The utilization of DNA to excuse a person under the post-conviction utilization of DNA proof or the assessment of blood-liquor level - Essay Example For the most part, to be acceptable the logical proof must have probative worth. To include, the proof must be appeared to have adequate premise to deliver uniform and sensibly steady outcomes that impact substantially to the ascertainment of truth. Like all other criminal cases, the indictment in DUI offenses, have the obligation to demonstrate past the sensible uncertainty that, at the hour of the offense, the blamed blood liquor focus was past as far as possible (levinson D 2002). In many wards, as far as possible range from 0.08% to 1%. Therefore, it is urgent for the indictment to get organic examples, for instance, blood, pee or terminated air that would indisputably demonstrate that the blamed blood liquor level was past as far as possible. In this manner, measurable proof is central, to show that the genuine blood level fixation, that it surpassed the breaking point. To acquire the blood liquor fixation, police extricates body substances of the presume which they subject to t esting. Be that as it may, in the field, it is unfeasible to acquire and test blood and pee test because of the skill and time required. In this manner, police depend on the utilization of breath testing gadgets, (of which breathalyzer is one the different kinds.), since they are anything but difficult to work, exact and solid in the field. The breathalyzer works through testing of the suspect’s lapsed breath or the alveolar air. It works on henry’s law that expresses that at, a consistent temperature and weight, the centralization of a gas that has broken down in a fluid is corresponding to the grouping of the air that is legitimately above it. In this manner, the alveolar air lapsed is typically at harmony with blood. Thusly, the breathalyzer takes a shot at the presumption that the liquor fixation in the alveolar air has an immediate relationship with the blood liquor focus, BAC. Upon utilization, liquor is neither processed nor artificially modified in the dissemin ation. While the blood going through the lungs, a portion of the liquor goes through the layer and into the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, and it dissipates since it is unstable. In this manner, it blends in with the alveoli air, which is in this way breathed out. Thus, the convergence of liquor noticeable all around sacs is proportional to that in that, in the blood. The breathed out air is the one that is identified by the breathalyzer. The liquor fixation in the alveolar air breathed out is at that point enlarged by a factor alluded to as the parcel proportion. This is done to relate the perusing to BAC, through transformation of the focus estimated in the breath to the coordinating liquor fixation in the blood. The breathalyzer takes a shot at the supposition that the proportion of the proportion of breath liquor to blood liquor is 2100:1. This implies the focus in each 2100 ml alveolar air is proportional to that in 1Ml of blood (Begleiter H, Kissin B 1996). The breathalyzer has a mouth piece through which the presume blows the breathed out air and an example of the equivalent goes to the example chamber. What follows is a progression of substance responses. The breathalyzer contains a framework to test the breath of the suspect, 2 glass vials that contain synthetic response blends, and a progression of photocells joined to a meter to that quantifies the shading change that outcomes from the compound response. For viability, the breathalyzer must be directed by a certified administrator and

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pre Natal Diognostic Techniques Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

The Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques ( Regulation and Prevention of Misuse ) Act, 1994, was authorized and brought into activity from first January, 1996, so as to investigate female foeticide in India. Rules have other than been surrounded under the Act. The Act denies finding and disclosure of the sex of hatchling I. We will compose a custom paper test on Pre Natal Diognostic Techniques Health And Social Care Essay or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now e. antenatal sex understanding by twisting diverse pre-natal demonstrative strategies and processs. It other than precludes any advertizements partner to pre-natal finding of sex and endorses punishment for its debate. Any person who repudiates the commissariats of this Act is culpable with detainment and mulct. As of late, PNDT Act[ 1 ]and Rules[ 2 ]have been revised keeping up in position the developing engineerings and new pre-natal analytic methods for decision of sex when build and employments looked in the working of execution of the ACT and certain waies of Hon’ble Supreme Court after a PIL was recorded in May, 2000 by CEHAT and Ors, a NGO on moderate execution of the Act. These corrections have come into activity with outcome from fourteenth February, 2003 PRE-NATAL DIOGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES Pre-birth indicative demonstrating includes demonstrating the hatchling before the birth ( prenatally ) inorder to discover with respect to whether the baby has certain abnormalcies, including certain familial or self-created familial surprises. A portion of these preliminaries, for example, echography and certain blood preliminaries, are regularly part of ordinary pre-birth consideration. Ultrasonography and blood preliminaries are protected and some of the time help discover whether progressively intrusive antenatal familial preliminaries (, for example, chorionic villus examining, amniocentesis, and transdermal umbilical blood inspecting ) are required. Pre-birth diagnosing empowers early diagnosing of characteristic anomalousnesss and familial surprises in the immature undeveloped organism. The populace risk of holding a child with some innate abnormalcy, regardless of whether hereditarily as well as naturally decided, changes somewhere in the range of 3 and 5 % . In families at danger of a familial bombshell the possibility of holding an influenced child can rise above a few overlay the populace risk, thus in these family units pre-birth indicative processs ought to be simply applied.[ 3 ] Progressed imagine ofing strategies each piece great as cytogenetic and atomic organic science techniques give the offices to name prenatally army innate basic disfigurements and familial miracles in high-danger families. Early diagnosing in utero can turn out key to course of the incubation, antenatal and baby blues clinical consideration, and intercession. It is other than essential to doing educated conclusions about go oning or finishing the growth. Familial direction in relationship with current antenatal demonstrative processs establishes a fundamental part of bar of natural anomalousnesss and familial bombshells. The methodology of antenatal direction and diagnosing is submitted mostly to reassigning data which expects to help the guardians: †1. To comprehend and concede the indicants for antenatal diagnosing, 2. To comprehend the clinical features of doing the diagnosing of a familial sickness or an inalienable abnormalcy ( by qualifying the steamed, type of legacy, the danger of holding an influenced kid in successive coevalss ) , 3. To do educated picks about the sufficient for a given pathology and worthy symptomatic methodology ( by portraying the conceivable analytic strategies and processs, their advantages, limitations and risks ) . Blending to World Health Organization ( WHO ) and European Commission ‘s proposals, antenatal diagnosing ought to be willful and performed only so as to get cognizance about fetal wellbeing position ( as portrayed by clinical indicants ) . Plausibility of antenatal diagnosing ought to be equivalent, just, and accessible to anybody, regardless of the pair ‘s or clinical practician ‘s disposition towards termination of incubation. In case of having an unnatural result, the assurance about lapse of the incubation ought to be made autonomously by the grown-up female or the couple. People groups doing such judgments ought to non be victimized, whatever assurance they have made: either finishing the development or bringing forth an impaired child. Techniques for antenatal diagnosing can be isolated into: †( a ) Non-Invasive ; and ( B ) Invasive strategies. NON-INVASIVE PROCEDURES Non-Invasive strategies are utilized for naming inherent anomalousnesss and danger evaluation of given familial bombshells ( testing ) aë†? Ultrasound: Routine obstetric ultrasound examine: †Everyday obstetric ultrasound checking performed by the obstetrician pull offing the incubation. Measures for ordinary growths accommodate four sweeps did at: 11-14 hebdomads, 21-26 hebdomads, 27-32 hebdomads, and 40 hebdomad of development. High-goals ultrasound output and Doppler surveies: †Performed in any incubation with an expanded peril of fetal auxiliary abnormalcies, detached or bit of a familial condition. Womans are alluded for high-goals ultrasound to authority Centers pull offing awful incubations. In ongoing mature ages 3-dimensional ultrasound ( 3D ) and 4-dimensional ultrasound ( 4D ) have begun to play an expanding capacity in antenatal diagnosing. They can be applied in estimating facial qualities, cardinal sensory system abnormalcies and skeletal imperfections. Fetal chest echocardiography: †Performed at 18-23 hebdomads of incubation within the sight of an expanded danger of chest imperfection ( for delineation: chest deformity in a parent or kin, unnatural business as usual ultrasound ) aë†? Attractive reverberation creative mind ( MRI ) X-ray is utilized in mix with ultrasound, typically at or after 18 hebdomads ‘ incubation. X-ray gives an instrument to investigation of fetuss with large or complex anomalousnesss, and visual picture of the abnormalcy according to the full natural structure of the hatchling. Clearly MRI is a riskless strategy. aë†? Maternal serum organic chemistry demonstrating Intrusive PROCEDURES Intrusive processs include direct examination of fetal cells or tissues. Traditional cytogenetic, atomic and biochemical techniques ( performed on unstudied or cultivated cells ) are the regularly utilized in antenatal intrusive diagnosing. The processs should take topographic point in specializer Centers that oversee terrible incubations. While sing intrusive techniques all indicants and gauges should be painstakingly assessed as there is a significant risk to the gestation[ 4 ]. Obtrusive procedures include: aë†? Chorionic villus inspecting ( trophoblast cells investigation ) aë†? Amniocentesis ( amnionic liquid cells investigation ) aë†? Cordocentesis ( Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling ) According to The Pre-origination and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques ( Prohibition of Sex Selection ) Act, 1994, pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques includes[ 5 ]: †Ultra-sonography Fetoscopy Taking examples of amnionic liquid, undeveloped organism, blood or any tissue or liquid of pregnant grown-up females previously or after develop, Testing tests in Genetic Laboratory to watch familial miracles, abnormalcies or sex-connected maladies Out of the above expressed antenatal procedures, the most ordinarily utilized sex-assurance preliminary is ammnicentesis. It was utilized as a help to watch any abnormalcy in the unborn child. However, over the mature ages it has been utilized to discover the sex of the baby. In India since 1978 the preliminary is being utilized as a sex finding or sex preselection preliminary. Since so the preliminary has gotten profoundly well known and has prompted a mushrooming of private centers which play out the preliminary everywhere throughout the state. Prior doctors utilized the disputable amniocentesis preliminary done between 14-18 hebdomads to discover the sex of the foetus.The ultrasound strategy has other than been improved. The sex of a baby can be controlled by increasingly refined machines inside 13-14 hebdomads of development by trans-vaginal echography and by 14 to 16 hebdomads through stomach ultrasound. These techniques have rendered sex finding modest and simple. Some advanced technique like Erison strategy which isolates the Ten and Y Chromos from the sperm thus Injects back just Y chromos into the uterus to ensure a male kid have other than been created. Furthermore, they cost around Rupees 15,000 to 25,000.[ 6 ] THE PROBLEM OF FOETICIDE IN INDIA The Women who comprise half of the human populace have been segregated, annoyed and abused regardless of the state to which they have a place, distracted of the confidence which they declare and incognizant of the time span in which they live.[ 7 ]Everywhere grown-up females are stood up to with numerous difficulties. Female foeticide is potentially one of the most exceedingly awful signifiers of power against grown-up females where a grown-up female is denied her generally essential and cardinal right i.e â€Å" the privilege to life † . The wonder of female foeticide in India is non new, where female undeveloped organisms or fetuss are specifically disposed of after pre-natal sex finding, subsequently smothering miss kid even before they are conceived. As a result of specific premature birth, somewhere in the range of 35 and 40 million misss and grown-up females are losing from the Indian populace. In certain pieces of the express, the sex proportion of misss to young men ha s dropped to under 800:1000. The United Nations has communicated genuine worry about the situation. The long standing convention of kid propensity, combined with clinical designing presently provides for the position witting Indian families, the pick between installment of huge doweries for their young ladies or riddance of young ladies. The customary technique for securing free of the undesirable miss kid was female child murder, where the female angel was done off with after birth in grouped manners †either by harming the darling or permitting her stifling loop on refuse or simply by persecuting her skull und

Friday, August 21, 2020

Types of Borderline Personality Disorder Medications

Types of Borderline Personality Disorder Medications BPD Treatment Print Types of Borderline Personality Disorder Medications By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Learn about our editorial policy Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on July 01, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on July 17, 2019 sturti/Getty Images More in BPD Treatment Diagnosis Living With BPD Related Conditions In This Article Table of Contents Expand Antidepressants Antipsychotics Mood Stabilizers/Anticonvulsants Anxiolytics Other Medications View All Back To Top Borderline personality disorder is sometimes treated with medications for anxiety or depression, which have been shown to reduce some of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While there are currently no medications approved by the FDA to treat BPD, they have been found to be effective in some cases.?? Also, medications may be used to treat psychological conditions that frequently co-occur with BPD, such as major depressive disorder. Medications may be particularly effective for BPD when they are used in conjunction with psychotherapy and other treatments. Learning more about the different options will help you find the right medication choice for you. Borderline Personality Disorder Discussion Guide Get our printable guide to help you ask the right questions at your next doctors appointment. Download PDF Antidepressants While antidepressants were specifically developed for individuals with major depressive disorder and other disorders characterized by low mood, many individuals with BPD are treated with these medications.?? There are several types of antidepressants that have been studied for use with BPD, including tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).?? Research has shown that these medications may help with the sadness, low mood, anxiety, and emotional reactivity often experienced by people with BPD, but they do not seem to have a strong effect on other symptoms of the disorder (e.g., anger, impulsivity). Common antidepressants include: Nardil (phenelzine)Prozac (fluoxetine)Zoloft (sertraline)Effexor (venlafaxine)Wellbutrin (bupropion) Antipsychotics The term borderline was coined because early psychiatrists believed that the symptoms of BPD were on the border between neurosis and psychosis. For this reason, some of the first medications tested for BPD were antipsychotics. Since this time, it has been found that antipsychotics can have a positive effect on a variety of non-psychotic disorders, including BPD. Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, paranoid thinking, anger/hostility, and impulsivity in patients with BPD.?? Common antipsychotics include: Haldol (haloperidol)Zyprexa (olanzapine)Clozaril (clozapine)Seroquel (quetiapine)Risperdal (risperidone) (Risperdal) Mood Stabilizers/Anticonvulsants Medications with mood stabilizing properties, such as lithium, and some anticonvulsant (anti-seizure) medications, have been used to treat the impulsive behavior and rapid changes in emotion that are associated with BPD.?? There is research to suggest that these classes of drugs may be useful in BPD. Common mood stabilizers/anticonvulsants include: Lithobid (lithium carbonate)Depakote (valproate)Lamictal (lamotrigine)Tegretol or Carbatrol (carbamazepine) Anxiolytics (Anti-Anxiety) Because individuals with BPD also often experience intense anxiety, medications to reduce anxiety are sometimes prescribed. Unfortunately, there is very little research to support the use of anti-anxiety medication to treat BPD. Also, there is some evidence that uses of a particular class of anxiolytics, benzodiazepines (e.g., Ativan, Klonopin), may actually cause a worsening of symptoms for some individuals with BPD, and should be prescribed with caution.?? Benzodiazepines are particularly dangerous for use by individuals with co-occurring substance use disorders because they can be habit-forming. Buspar, an anxiolytic that is not habit-forming, is an alternative to medications from the benzodiazepine family. Common anxiolytics include: Ativan (lorazepam)Klonopin (clonazepam)Xanax (alprazolam)Valium (diazepam)Buspar (buspirone) Other Borderline Personality Disorder Medications As we learn more about the biological causes of BPD, new medications are being developed and tested for the disorder. For example, findings from one study suggest that an omega-3-fatty acid supplement can lead to decreased aggression and feelings of hostility in people with BPD.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect Essay example

Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect Human induced climate change resulting from an enhanced greenhouse effect is probably the greatest environmental threat facing the world today. Specifically, the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide may be classified as the primary culprit. As a result of greenhouse gases entering the upper levels of the earths atmosphere, it diminishes or breaks down the earths Ozone layer. With this loss of this protective blanket, harmful radioactive rays from the sun enter the deeper into the earths atmosphere. This creates a rise in the overall temperature of our planet, along with alterations in the global environment, ecosystems and way of life for the habitants of earth. The earth†¦show more content†¦I think a considerable measure that can be taken would be to address the threat of climate change to the main international countries contributing to it. I think all countries should discuss and create a solution to minimize the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the earthsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ climate change. Such a level should be achieved within a timeframe sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure food production is not threatened and to allow economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. One example of this in our world today is the use of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Green Buildingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? technology or à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Sustainable Designà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? in architectural design of structures. This innovative idea of building allows structures to be built using recycled materials or substances that are less harmful to the environment. The e fficient use of light and energy would be the most concentrated means of achieving a specific design goal. Aside from the political and legal measures taken in this matter, I feel companies need to undertake voluntary measures to address the climate change. As residents of earth, it is essential to be aware of the impacts onesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ company is generating. A company should measure their greenhouse gas emission and assess the impacts of these gases from their products. Companies should also try toShow MoreRelatedGlobal Warming And The Greenhouse Effect1588 Words   |  7 PagesGlobal warming is the increase in the average surface temperature of the Earth due to the effect of the buildup of greenhouse gases, due to deforestation and burning fossil fuels which causes the heat to be trapped that would otherwise escape from the earth. To understand global warming, you need to understand the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is actually essential for life on earth to exist as it allows the planet to remain warm enough to sustain life. For example if we consider forRead MoreThe Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming1723 Words   |  7 PagesThe greenhouse effect and global warming are issues that are talked about by geologists all the time. The greenhouse effect is a natural process that keeps the earth at temperatures that are livable. Energy from the sun warms the earth when its heat rays are absorbed by greenhouse gasses and become trapped in the atmosphere. Some of the most common greenhouse gasses are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. If there were no greenhouse gasses, very few rays would be absorbed and the earthRead MoreGlobal Warming and the Greenhouse Effect1974 Words   |  8 PagesThe Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Recently, global warming has moved to a serious scientific issue. Because sunlight is constantly falling on the earth, the law of physics say that the planet has to radiate the same amount of energy back into space. Infrared radiation is sent out by the earth through the atmosphere, where molecules (carbon dioxide) hold outgoing radiation for a while, warming the surface.1 The molecules are kind of like glass in a greenhouse which is why this processRead MoreThe Effects Of Global Warming On The Greenhouse Effect1917 Words   |  8 PagesThe Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the result of the interaction of the atmosphere of a world and the radiation emitted from the Sun and planet. This process essentially makes a world warmer that it would be. As we will learn in this chapter there are many factors that determine the strength of a world’s greenhouse effect including a world’s size, the world’s distance from the Sun and the strength of a world’s magnetic field. Before you can learn about the factors that influence the greenhouseRead MoreGlobal Warming and the Greenhouse Effect Essays793 Words   |  4 Pages What is the greenhouse effect? It is the behavior of solar radiation when it interacts with gasses in the Earths atmosphere. The Sun gives off a wide spectrum of energy which we classify according to its wavelength. Among the types of energy given off by the sun are ultraviolet (UV), visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths. UV is short wavelength high-energy radiation, visible is mid-wavelength, mid-energy radiation, and IR is long wavelength low-energy radiation. Read MoreEssay on Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect 1500 Words   |  6 Pages Global Warming is due to the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earths surface and atmosphere. It results from the fact that certain atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet by being able to absorb longwave radiation from the Earths surface. Without the greenhouse effect, life on this planet would probably not exist as the averageRead MoreEssay on Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect1912 Words   |  8 PagesGlobal Warming and the Greenhouse Effect   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Recently, global warming has moved to a serious scientific issue. Because sunlight is constantly falling on the earth, the law of physics say that the planet has to radiate the same amount of energy back into space. Infrared radiation is sent out by the earth through the atmosphere, where molecules (carbon dioxide) hold outgoing radiation for a while, warming the surface.1 The molecules are kind of like glass in a greenhouse which is why this processRead More Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect Essay591 Words   |  3 PagesGlobal Warming and the Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect, in environmental science, is a popular term for the effect that certain variable constituents of the Earths lower atmosphere have on surface temperatures. It has been known since 1896 that Earth has been warmed by a blanket of gasses (This is called the greenhouse effect.). The gases--water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4)--keep ground temperatures at a global average of about 15 degrees C (60 degrees F). WithoutRead MoreEssay on The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming1837 Words   |  8 PagesThe greenhouse effect is an important phenomenon and is currently holding national and international attention. Why is there an interest in the effect? Why are people willing to invest so much time and effort investigating its consequences and willing to suffer by them? What is the basis for believing the effect is real? The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process, which is initiated by the sun. It is a result of the fact that there are gases in the Earth’s atmosphere which containRead MoreThe Effects Of Greenhouse Gases On Global Warming Essay3424 Words   |  14 Pages Diagram A is a visual representation of the greenhouse effect and the role greenhouse gases play in this greenhouse effect. How do greenhouse gases in the atmosphere affect global warming? Many of the greenhouse gases in the troposphere are naturally produced, which is why the Earth is able to stay at a constant average global temperature. Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas in which is affecting global warming, not because of naturally produced carbon dioxide, but mainly because of man

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Great Expectations By Charles Dickens - 1278 Words

Great Expectations is a suspenseful novel that was crafted by Charles Dickens. It encompasses an orphaned-low class boy, Pip, and his journey to adulthood. His childhood surrounds his aspirations to one day be a gentlemen. Throughout the novel, Pip encounters several events and faces a variety of people who all shape the person he is. Teeter-tottering between expectations vs reality, right vs wrong, and revenge vs reward, Great Expectations amplifies the struggles that an orphaned boy encountered on his way to love and success. In the novel, Pip befriends Miss Havisham. She is a lonesome, jilted bride who plays a dramatic role in Pip’s life, that is, she initiated his hopes of becoming a gentlemen. Throughout Great Expectations, it is†¦show more content†¦Some of the windows had been walled up; of those that remained, all the lower were rustily barred† (Dickens 55). This justifies that Miss Havisham willingly secludes herself from others. She confines herself i n her mansion because she believes if she does, she will not be hurt again. Another Neurotic Need that Miss Havisham displays in the uncontrollable desire to control others, specifically Estella. That girl (Estella) is hard and haughty and capricious to the last degree, and has been brought up by Miss Havisham to wreak revenge on all the male sex.† (Dickens 186). With this quote said by Herbert, he is amplifying the hatred that Miss Havisham has for men. She is so damaged and heart-broken because of what a man had done to her, so she seeks revenge. She manipulates and controls Estella to torture and hurt other men. Considering the previous, it is reasonable to suggest that Miss Havisham potentially suffers from Neurosis. It is also a possibility that Miss Havisham is affected by Emotional Deprivation Disorder. This is a disorder in which an individual exhibits severe anxiety and low self-esteem due to the lack of emotional support and strength from a spouse. â€Å"Emotional Deprivation Disorder† For the duration of the story, Miss Havisham displays inferiority by unconsciously believing that she will never have another lover again. To support her mental stupor, Miss Havisham has difficulty opening up to people and letting them in. She constantly doubtsShow MoreRelatedGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1113 Words   |  5 Pagesadventures that the male characters go on. This seems to be relevant in a lot of movies and books like the story Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. In Great Expectations there are multiple female characters like Estella, Biddy, and Miss Havisham who all play a large part in the main character, Pip’s life. One of the first that we meet the character Estella in Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations is when Pip goes to Miss Havisham’s to play with her. The two kids play the game beggar my neighbor when EstellaRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1347 Words   |  6 Pagespoor status of the economy, social mobility does not seem to be occurring at high rates, with the poor getting poorer and rich getting richer. Despite this, social mobility is alive and well, and has been for centuries. In his novel, Great Expectations, Charles Dickens voices the concerns of many that lived in Victorian England during the 19th century by promoting such a desire to live life in a more prosperous social class. One of the most fundamental and reoccurring themes in the novel is that ofRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1426 Words   |  6 Pages Twelve-year-old Charles dickens gets ready for bed after a long day at the blacking house. These Victorian-aged memories will provide him with many ideas for his highly acclaimed novel Great Expectations. Set in 1830 England, Great Expectations is a coming-of-age story about a common innocent boy named Pip and his road to becoming a gentleman through the influence of others. Pip is influenced both positively and negatively by Estella, Herbert, and Magwitch. Estella left a huge impression on PipRead MoreGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens984 Words   |  4 PagesCharles Dickens utilizes his life for inspiration for the protagonist Pip in his novel Great Expectations. They both struggle with their social standing. Dickens loved plays and theatre and therefore incorporated them into Pip’s life. Dickens died happy in the middle class and Pip died happy in the middle class. The connection Dickens makes with his life to Pip’s life is undeniable. If readers understand Dickens and his upbringing then readers can understand how and why he created Pip’s upbringingRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations943 Words   |  4 Pages This is true in many cases but none as much as in Great Expectations. In many ways the narrator/protagonist Pip is Charles Dickens in body and mind. While there are many differences between the story and Charles Dickens life there remains one constant. This constant is the way Pip as the narra tor feels, because these feelings are Dickens s own feelings about the life he lead. Since Great Expectations was written towards end of Charles Dickens life, he was wiser and able to make out the mistakesRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1375 Words   |  6 PagesGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens and The Talented Mr Ripley by Anthony Minghella present similar criticisms of society to a large extent. Both of these texts consider the criticisms of rich social contexts (wealth and status), societal morality (whether a society is good or not. Status [can lead to the wrong people being in a high position i.e. making bad decisions affecting the community/society] Appearance [society appears to be moral/good (if you’re from a higher status) {dickens criticisesRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1223 Words   |  5 PagesBeloved author Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812 in Portsmouth, England. Growing up in a life of poverty, his childhood hardshi ps provided the inspiration to write a myriad of classic novels including his 1861 seminole masterpiece, Great Expectations (â€Å"BBC History - Charles Dickens†). Great Expectations follows the life of an orphan named Pip, who’s perspective of the world is altered when he is attacked by an escaped convict in his parents’ graveyard in the town of Kent. Throughout hisRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens924 Words   |  4 Pagesa character driven novel, or a mix of the two. In order for a novel to be character driven, it must revolve more around the characters’ individual thoughts, feelings, and inner struggles, rather than around the quest of the story. Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, is a character driven novel. While the story does have a plot, it is not contingent upon that plot, but rather is reliant upon its characters and their natures. This is evident from the beginning of the novel. From the opening ofRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1669 Words   |  7 PagesCharles Dickens He was one of England s greatest authors of the 1800 s, better known as the Victorian era. The various themes and ideas of that time are perfectly showcased in his many novels and short stories, such as Nicholas Nickelby, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, A Tale of Two Cities, and A Christmas Carol. Much of the inspiration for these works came from the trials and conflicts that he dealt with in his own life. His volumes of fictional writing show the greatRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1017 Words   |  5 Pagesexperiencer is somewhere else absorbing knowledge of a different setting.This abstract adventure is seized by author Charles Dickens in Great Expectations. Great Expectations is historical fiction giving readers comprehension of the Victorian Era.Upon the reading, readers begin to catch on the intended purpose and its significance. A person who lived during the Victorian Era was Charles Dickens himself.He grew up during a time where differences in social class were to an extreme degree.Dickens went through

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Advertising Impact on Society - 1190 Words

Advertising’s impact on Society Marshall McLuhan, a Canadian philosopher of communication theory said, â€Å"Advertising is the greatest art form of the 20th century.† Like many works of art, advertising is constantly pushing the limits of what is appropriate. It is hard to escape the constant bombardment of advertisements; they are all around us and they have an impact on our cultural values as a society. Industries take full advantage of this constant exposure in order to sell their products, so as a result advertisements are pushing the envelope even further to catch the attention of its viewers. According to Jean Kilbourne, creator of the acclaimed documentary Killing Us Softly, â€Å"over a $180 billion are now spent on advertising in the U.S. and the average person sees over 3,000 ads daily† (Kilbourne). Sex and consumption have become overtly connected in many of the advertisements seen today. This Skyy Vodka ad is an excellent example of the inappropriate nature of advertisements and the neg ative affect they have on society. The SKYY Vodka advertisement that is featured in Maxim Magazine is not only selling alcohol it is selling the concept of sexuality through images of sexual innuendo. There is nothing subtle about the message behind this advertisement. The image depicts a bottle of dark blue Skyy infusions All Natural Cherry vodka against a bright red background. The bottle is placed between two women, one Caucasian and the other African American. From what we can gatherShow MoreRelatedAdvertising And Its Impact On Society1178 Words   |  5 Pagescomes to advertising these differences are not put aside, especially in terms of gender and race. According to Schroeder Borgerson (1998), advertising is quite significant when influencing, building and illustrating consumers vision of the good life, which includes sexual attraction. Domzal Kernan (1993), added that, advertising images represent an essential part of the experienced visua l world. Reality and advertising are notRead MoreRole of Advertising and its impact on society.2376 Words   |  10 Pagespractice of advertising have been reshaping the society people live in. The force of advertising reaches out and touches everyone living and working in the modern world today. Advertising is claimed by its practitioners to be largely responsible for the good things in life and is criticized by its opponents as the cause of unpleasant things (Lee Johnson, 1999). The impact of advertising on the society is a fiercely debated topic, and has been ever since the conception of advertising in its mostRead MoreAdvertising Has A Impact On Society Essay1938 Words   |  8 PagesAdvertising has had a major impact on society. Some may be considered positive and some negative. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Analysis

Questions: 1.Outline the Method used in Presenting the Statement of Cash Flows for each Company. 2.Examine the information in relation to cash flow from operating activities, Cash Flow from Investing activities and cash flow from Financing activities 3.Based on the analysis, you are required to make Conclusions and recommendation. 3.a.Which Business would you expect to be a better short-term credit risk. 3.b.Do you think both Companies have adequate Cash resources? 3.c.Assess both Companies ability to survive in the longer term. 3.d.Which Company is better at generating cash from their Sales Revenue? Answers: 1.The direct method which is being applied for presenting a statement of cash flows represents specified cash flows regarding the items which affect cash flow. The main advantage which can be attained through application of the direct method is that it reveals operating cash and receipts. The same is not available in the indirect method. JB Hi- Fi The company has applied the direct method of cash flow statement in for presenting cash flows relating to the company in the annual report. Further, reconciliation statement regarding net cash inflow from operating activities has been appropriately provided in the annual report of the company. Figure 1: Reconciliation statement of net cash inflow from operating activities to profit (Source: Annual report of JB HI FI, 2016) Harvey Norman Harvey Norman Holdings Ltd has also applied the direct method for presenting cash flows relating to operating, financing and investing activities in the annual report of the company. Further, reconciliation statement relating to cash and cash equivalents available at the end of the year as well as a reconciliation of profit after income tax to net operating cash flows has been provided in an appropriate manner. It can be concluded that Harvey Norman Ltd has presented the reconciliation in the more appropriate manner in comparison to JB Hi-Fi by providing a reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year. Figure 2: Notes Accounts of Cash Flow Statement (Source: Annual report of Harvey Norman, 2016) 2.JB Hi- Fi Analysis of Cash Flow Statement JB Hi Fi has applied the direct method in order to present cash flow statement in its annual report. Further, reconciliation statement regarding net cash inflow from operating profits has been provided in notes to accounts in an appropriate manner (Brigham and Ehrhardt, 2013). However, reconciliation relating to cash and cash equivalent balance has not been provided in detail, rather the same has been explained by way of a note in notes to accounts of financial statements. Other than this point, all the activities relating to financing, investing and operating have been appropriately bifurcated and presented in cash flow statement in annual report Table 1: Trend of cash flow from operating activities Year 2016 2015 2014 Cash Flow from operating activities $185.14 million $179.89 million $41.326 million Year JB Hi- Fi Liquidity Ratios Working Capital Ratio 1.57 Cash Flow Adequacy 1.21 Work Capital Ratio: The ratio assesses the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. In case of JB Hi-Fi in accordance with ratio evaluation, it can be concluded that sufficient current assets are available to the company to pay off or accomplish current liabilities of the organization. Cash Flow Adequacy Ratio: The ratio analysis the ability of the company to meet its future debt obligations. For assessing the same free cash flows available to the company are divided by long term debts which will mature over next five years (Annual report of JB HI FI, 2016). The above analysis concludes that JB Hi-Fi has adequate funds in order to pay off its long term debts. Company Name JB Hi- Fi Solvency Ratio Debt to Total Assets 0.06 Debt coverage ratio 3.73 Debt to Total Asset Ratio: The specified ratio assesses the extent of solvency of the company. In case this ratio is high, the company is deemed risky and high leveraged organization. In the present scenario, as the ratio is .6 which means 60 % of the assets is financed through debt (Chandrasekaran, Manimannan and Kumar, 2013). Although the risk framework is evaluated and analyzed with input from senior management for identifying and managing risk in an appropriate manner, the same required to be done with more efficiency so that the ratio can be improved and risk relating to same can be reduced. Debt Coverage Ratio: The ratio represents the ability of a company to pay off its debts. JB Hi-Fi is having higher debt coverage ratio, which can be said the strength of the organization. Thus, it can be concluded that appropriate revenues are available in order to pay off the existing debt obligation of the organization. Company Name JB Hi- Fi Profitability Ratios Cash Flow to Sales ratio 0.05 Cash Flow to Sales Ratio In the present case of JB Hi-Fi, as the cash flow to sales ratio is 0.05; which specifies that .05 cent of operating cash flow is generated through every sales dollar. The higher the amount, the favourable for the organization, as the same is too low, it requires being improved. The same can be improved through assessing the relationship between cash generated from operation and sales. Harvey Norman Analysis of Cash Flow Statement The direct method of cash flow provides details relating to operating cash receipts and payment. In the present scenario, Harvey Norman has adopted the same method for presenting cash flow in its annual report. Further, it has reconciliation statement of cash equivalents as well as cash flow from operating activities in appropriate manner (Halim, Osman and Haniff, 2012). The company is having a policy of preparing cash flow forecast after evaluating all the operations of the business and efforts are made to achieve predetermined goals with the assistance of financial and no-financial key performance indicators of the organization. Table 2: Trend of cash flow from operating activities Year 2016 2015 2014 Cash Flow from operating activities $437.69 million $340.45 million $338.9 million From above provided it can be assessed that Harvey Norman is having an increasing trend of operating cash flows. However despite improved cash flows from operating activities the closing cash balance of company has been decreased by $45.97 million in comparison to balance which was available in a previous year (Annual report of Harvey Norman, 2016). Due to the same reason, the payment higher payment and interest bearing loans have been funded through existing cash reserves rather than eternal debt. Therefore, it can be concluded that debt to equity ratio requires being improved as the same was prominent in previous years. Company Name Harvey Norman Liquidity Ratios Working Capital Ratio 1.26 Cash Flow Adequacy 1.21 Work Capital Ratio: Working Capital ratio assesses whether the company has sufficient short term assets in order to cover its short term debt. In the present case, as the ratio is above one, the same indicates that Harvey Norman Ltd has sufficient current assets in order to pay off short term debts (Healy and Palepu, 2012). Even after paying all the debts, it is having a current asset or positive working capital. It also specifies that sufficient operating liquidity is existing in business. Cash Flow Adequacy Ratio: It is one of the main financial metrics which is applied for evaluating the sufficiency of cash in an organization. In case the ratio is above one; if represents that sufficient liquidity is present in the company for accomplishing required business obligations. It can be concluded from above cash flow adequacy ratio that company will be able to pay off all long term annual debt with existing free cash flows. Company Name Harvey Norman Solvency Ratio Debt to Total Assets 0.39 Debt coverage ratio 1.77 Debt to Total Asset Ratio: Debt to the Total asset can be interpreted as that proportion of organizations asset which is being financed by debt. In the present case, it can be assessed that 39% of the assets are being financed by debt (Ormiston and Fraser, 2013). It can be concluded through the study that company has grown and produced profits in order to expand the assets. Harvey Norman can be said as less leveraged firm, and thus it has required asset for paying off the existing liabilities in case required. Debt Coverage Ratio: It evaluates the amount of cash flow available for payments relating to interest, principal, lease payment and sinking fund. As the debt coverage ratio of Harvey Norman Ltd is approximately near to two, it can be concluded that the company has sufficient operating income in order to pay off debt obligations. Thus, sufficient cash is available for its current interest, principal amount and sinking fund obligations as it is able to generate sufficient revenues for paying the same. Company Name Harvey Norman Profitability Ratios Cash Flow to Sales ratio 0.24 Cash Flow to Sales Ratio: The ratio evaluates the ability of a company to turn its operating cash flow into net revenues. The investor receives an idea through this ratio regarding the capability of the company to turn cash into sales. Net cash flow from the operation has increased 97.24 million, $437.69 which is an increase in comparison to $340.45 million of the prior year (Saunders, Cornett and McGraw, 2006). Even though, company requires to make an effort to improve this ratio by increasing the capacity of converting sales into cash at a higher rate. 3.a Company Name Harvey Norman JB Hi- Fi Liquidity Ratios Working Capital Ratio 1.26 1.57 Cash Flow Adequacy 1.21 1.21 Figure 3: Comparison of Liquidity of both the companies Credit risk can be specified as a risk for not repaying the existing debts. From above table, it can be assessed that JB Hi-Fi is a comparatively better short term credit risk as it has higher working capital ratio. The same represents that it has sufficient funds in comparison to Harvey Norman Ltd for repaying its current debts. 3.b Table 3: Comparative cash ratios Company Name Harvey Norman JB Hi- Fi Cash Flow to Sales ratio 0.24 0.05 Cash Flow Adequacy 1.21 1.21 Table 4: Comparative cash Flow from operating activities Year 2016 2015 2014 JB HI FI $185.14 million $179.89 million $41.326 million Harvey Norman $437.69 million $340.45 million $338.9 million By considering ration analysis of both the companies it can be noticed that company has sufficient cash resource to manage liquidity of business (Strumickas and Valanciene, 2015). Further, cash adequacy ratio of both the entities is similar and having an increasing trend of cash from operational activities. This factor shows improving the capacity of business in terms of cash generating efficiency. 3.cBoth the companies are having sustainable future in the long term as their annual report show future financial plans for further growth and success. Further, financial ratios also do not indicate any sign regarding termination or closure of operational activities in the near future. Management of both the entities are focused on improving their financial and market performance to attain competitive advantage 3.dBy considering the cash flow to sales ratio, it can be cited that Harvey Norman is performing comparatively better than JB HI-FI. Company Name Harvey Norman JB Hi- Fi Cash Flow to Sales ratio 0.24 0.05 References Books and Journals Brigham, E. and Ehrhardt, M., (2013). Financial management: Theory practice. Cengage Learning Chandrasekaran, R., Manimannan, G. and Kumar, C.A., (2013). Assessment of Top Ranking Companions Using Financial Ratios. In International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. ESRSA Publications. Halim, M.S.A., Osman, O. and Haniff, M.S., (2012). Financial Ratio Analysis: An Assessment of Malaysian Healy, P. and Palepu, K., (2012). Business Analysis Valuation: Using Financial Statements. Cengage Learning. Ormiston, A. and Fraser, L.M., (2013). Understanding financial statements. Pearson Education. Saunders, A., Cornett, M. M., and McGraw, P. A. (2006).Financial institutions management: A risk management approach. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Strumickas, M. and Valanciene, L., (2015). Development of Modern Management Accounting System. Engineering Economics. 21(4). Online Annual report of JB HI FI. (2016). [PDF]. Available through . [Accessed on 1st September 2017]. Annual report of Harvey Norman. (2016). [PDF]. Available through . [Accessed on 1st September 2017].